Our People

Murray

Murray Early

Principal Research Scientist

Electricity

Areas of expertise

• AC Voltage and Current
• Digital Multimeters
• DC Voltage and Resistance
• Quantum Hall Effect
• Cryogenic Current Comparators

Qualifications

• PhD, Physics, 1987

Biography

Murray joined New Zealand’s National Metrology Institute (NMI) in 1990, initially taking responsibility for ac standards of voltage and current. Since then he has widened his expertise to cover most areas of electrical metrology, and was the manager of the Electrical Standards team for four years.
His research interests have included the design and construction of CCCs (Cryogenic Current Comparators), including a high-temperature superconducting prototype, and the further development of a method for the accurate build-up of the dc voltage scale. Much of this work has been carried out in collaboration with many international colleagues. A highlight was spending nine months at the National Research Council of Canada as a guest researcher investigating the ac quantum Hall effect.
Murray was elected chair of the APMP TCEM (Technical Committee for Electricity and Magnetism) in 2015. He has been a regular contributor to the CPEM (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements) and was elected to the Executive Committee in 2014. He was successful in bidding to host the 2022 conference in New Zealand.
Murray was the MSL Quality Manager for four years and has been technical expert or peer reviewer for various IANZ accredited laboratories as well as other NMIs.

Professional activities

• Chair of the APMP TCEM (Technical Committee for Electricity and Magnetism).
• Member, CCEM (Consultative Committee for Electricity and Magnetism).
• Member, CCEM-WGRMO (CCEM Working Group of Regional Metrology Organizations).
• Member of the CPEM Executive (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements).
• Member of the New Zealand Institute of Physics.

Publications

• B-O Andersson, M D Early, G Eklund, O Gunnarsson and K-E Rydler, The Reference Step Method for DC Voltage at 1 mV and 10 mV, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) Digest, pp. 520-521, August 2014, Brazil.
• M D Early, L A Christian and T J Lawson, Building up the DC Voltage Scale for Sources and Meters, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) Digest, pp. 138-139, August 2014, Brazil.
• M.D. Early*, M. Šíra, B.-O. Andersson, L.A. Christian, O. Gunnarsson, K.-E. Rydler, and J. Streit. 2013. A Simple Build-Up Method for the DC Voltage Scale of a Source. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement; vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 1600-1607.
• T. B. Lawson and M. D. Early. 2012. A Zero Boil-Off Dewar for Use with a Cryogenic Current Comparator. Conference Digest, pp. 72-73, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements Washington DC, 1-6 July 2012
• M. Šíra, M.D. Early, J. Streit, and L.A. Christian. 2012. Comparison of the Reference Step Method with a MI 8000/8001 Potentiometer. Conference Digest, pp. 540-541, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements Washington DC, 1-6 July 2012
• M D Early*, M Garcocz, and L A Christian. 2010. DC Performance of a High Accuracy Thermal Transfer Standard. Conference Digest, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements; pp. 201-202.
• M D Early* and J A M King. 2010. On the Calibration of a Wideband Meter. Conference Digest, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements; pp. 197-198.
• T B Lawson, M D Early* and K Jones. 2010. Simulation of a Quantum Hall Cryogenic Current Comparator Resistance Bridge. Conference Digest, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements; pp. 623-624.
• I Budovsky, A R B Z Abidin, Y K Yan, L Lingziang, V K Rustagi, A K Govil, M Klonz, Y-c Wei, M D Early*, H Sasaki, H Fujiki, C Kumtawee, S-W Kwon, N A Son, B Suprianto, M Temba, M Ruiz and S P B Leones, Jr. 2005. APMP International comparison of AC-DC transfer standards at the lowest attainable level of uncertainty. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement; vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 795-798.
• A D Inglis, B M Wood, M Cote, R B Young and M D Early*. 2003. Direct determination of capacitance standards using a quadrature bridge and a pair of quantized Hall resistors. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement; vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 559-562.